Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.
Autor(es): Arjunan Nareshkumar; Murugan Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan Pari; Kovendan Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar Kanagarajan; Thangamani Sundaram; Barnard Donald R
Resumo: Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. C. dactylon showed the highest mortality rate against the three species of mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties.
Palavras-Chave: Plant Extract; Water Quality Parameter; Carvacrol; Japanese Encephalitis; Bermuda Grass
Imprenta: Parasitology Research, v. 110, n. 4, p. 1435-1443, 2012
Identificador do objeto digital: 10.1007/s00436-011-2646-3.
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Data de publicação: 2012