Characteristics of 73 patients, 1984-1993, treated by plasma exchange for Guillain-Barre syndrome

Autor(es): Mahalati K,Dawson R B,Collins J O,Lietman S,Pearlman S,Gulden D

Resumo: Acute Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a demyelinating polyneuropathy which responds readily to plasma exchange (PEX). According to the North American Acute GBS PEX study there is a 50% or more reduction in the recovery time if PEX is initiated early in the course of the disease. Demyelinating antibodies are usually IgM. IgA antibodies require prolonged PEX. Patients with predominant IgG antibodies have chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), which requires an even longer course of PEX, over weeks to months or years. We reviewed records of 73 patients with the initial diagnosis of GBS treated with PEX. Among these patients, 55 had classic GBS, three had the Miller-Fisher variant, two had CIDP, and 13 had demyelinating-like polyneuropathies associated with other conditions including malignancy, vaccine-related myelitis, steroid-induced myopathy, polymyositis, botulism, gram-negative sepsis, Sjogren's, and AIDS. Hughes grading system was used. Patients were graded 3 to 5, with grade 3 patients being unable to walk 5 m without support, grade 4 patients being bed or chair bound, and grade 5 patients being ventilator dependent. Of 60 unassociated (GBS) demyelinating cases receiving a mean of 6.5 PEX procedures, 13 (21%) were intubated early in the treatment, with four (6%) remaining ventilator dependent post-PEX. Of 51 non-intubated patients, 15 became ambulatory post-PEX. Patients with the Miller-Fisher variant showed improvement within 6 hours of PEX initiation. We did not investigate correlation of GBS with infection; however, we did observe a rise in CMV titer among 15% of the 58 patients with acute GBS. Considering our results we believe that intensive PEX on a daily basis for a few days is necessary for severely affected individuals. We advise five to nine procedures at consultation unless early, rapid recovery occurs.

Palavras-Chave: GBS; Miller-Fisher; CIDP; EAN; CMV; EBV; Plasma exchange; Hemapheresis; Demyelination; Wallerian degeneration

Imprenta: Journal of clinical apheresis, v. 12, n. 3, p. 116-121, 1997

Identificador do objeto digital: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1101(1997)12:3<116::AID-JCA3>3.0.CO;2-D

Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine

Data de publicação: 1997