Mosquito larval consumption of toxic arborescent leaf-litter, and its biocontrol potential.
Autor(es): David J P; Tilquin M; Rey D; Ravanel P; Meyran J C
Resumo: Previously we described the mosquito larvicidal properties of decomposed leaf-litter from deciduous trees, especially the alder Alnus glutinosa (L) Gaertn., due to toxic polyphenols and other secondary compounds. To further examine the biocontrol potential of toxic leaf-litter for mosquito control, feeding rates of third-instar mosquito larvae were assessed for examples of three genera: Anopheles stephensi Liston, Aedes aegypti (L) and Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). When immersed in a suspension of non-toxic leaf-litter particles (approximately 0.4 mm), pre-starved larvae of all three species ingested sufficient material in 30 min to fill the anterior gut lumen (thorax plus two to three abdominal segments). Gut filling peaked after 1-2 h ingestion time, filling the intestine up to six to seven abdominal segments for Ae. aegypti, but maxima of five abdominal segments for Cx. pipiens and An. stephensi. Using three methods to quantify consumption of three materials by third-instar larvae of Ae. aegypti, the average amount of leaf-litter (non-toxic 0.4 mm particles) ingested during 3 h was determined as approximately 20 microg/larva (by dry weight and by lignin spectrophotometric assay). Consumption of humine (approximately 100 microm particles extracted from leaf-litter) during 3 h was approximately 80 microg/larva for Ae. aegypti, but only approximately 30 microg/larva for Cx. pipiens and 15 microg/larva for An. stephensi, with good concordance of determinations by dry weight and by radiometric assay. Cellulose consumption by Ae. aegypti was intermediate: approximately 40 microg/larva determined by radiometric assay. Apparent differences between the amounts of these materials ingested by Ae. aegypti larvae (humine four-fold, cellulose two-fold more than leaf-litter) may be attributed to contrasts in palatability (perhaps related to particle size or form), rather than technical discrepancies, because there was good concordance between results of both methods used to determine the amounts of humine and leaf-litter ingested. Bioassays of toxic leaf-litter (decomposed 10 months) with 4-h exposure period (ingestion time) ranked the order of sensitivity: Ae. aegypti (LC50 < 0.03 g/L) > An. stephensi (LC50 = 0.35 g/L) > Cx. pipiens (LC20 > 0.4 g/L). When immersed in the high concentration of 0.5 g/L toxic leaf-litter (0.4 mm particles), as little as 15-30 min ingestion time (exposure period) was sufficient to kill the majority of larvae of all three species, as soon as the gut lumen was filled for only the first few abdominal segments. Possibilities for mosquito larval control with toxic leaf-litter products and the need for standardized ingestion bioassays of larvicidal particles are discussed.
Palavras-Chave: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Culex pipiens; Bioassays biological control; Cellulose consumption rate; Detritus humine; Larval feeding rate; Ingestion capacity; Larval control; Larval habitat; Larvicides; Leaf-litter lignin; Mosquito control; Mosquito larvae; Polyphenols France
Imprenta: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 17, n. 2, p. 151-157, 2003
Identificador do objeto digital: 10.1046/j.1365-2915.2003.00432.x
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Data de publicação: 2003