Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti.

Autor(es): Wandscheer Carolina B; Duque Jonny E; da Silva Mario A N; Fukuyama Yoshiyasu; Wohlke Jonathan L; Adelmann Juliana; Fontana José D

Resumo: Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05 g% in an aqueous medium for 24 and 48 h, at 25 or 30 degrees C, with or without feeding of the larvae. LC50, LC95 and LC99 were determined. Both seed extracts proved lethal for third to fourth instar larvae. Non-fed A. aegypti larvae were more susceptible to Azadirachta extracts at both temperatures. Under a more realistic environmental situation, namely with fed larvae at 25 degrees C, the death rates caused by the Melia extract were higher, although at 30 degrees C the extract of Azadirachta had an even higher lethality. Inter allia, the LC50 values for the crude extracts of these two members of the Meliaceae ranged from 0.017 to 0.034 g% while the LC99 values ranged from 0.133 to 0.189 g%. Since no downstream processing was undertaken to purify the active agents in the extracts, our findings seem very promising, suggesting that it may be possible to increase the larvicidal activity further by improving the extraction and the fractionation of the crude limonoids, for instance removing the co-extracted natural fats.

Palavras-Chave: Melia azedarach; Azadirachta indica; Aedes aegypti; Limonoids; Lethality; Larvicidal; Phytopesticides

Imprenta: Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology, v. 44, n. 8, p. 829-835, 2014

Identificador do objeto digital: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2004.07.009

Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health

Data de publicação: 2004