Fighting arboviral diseases: low toxicity on mammalian cells, dengue growth inhibition (in vitro), and mosquitocidal activity of Centroceras clavulatum-synthesized silver nanoparticles.

Autor(es): Murugan Kadarkarai; Aruna Palanimuthu; Panneerselvam Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan Pari; Paulpandi Manickam; Subramaniam Jayapal; Rajaganesh Rajapandian; Wei Hui; Alsalhi Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti Marcello; Syuhei Ban; Canale Angelo; Benelli Giovanni

Resumo: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread in all regions of the world in recent years. Female mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti, transmit dengue. Approximately 3,900 million people, in 128 countries, are at risk of dengue infection. Recently, a focus has been provided on the potential of green-synthesized nanoparticles as inhibitors of the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in Vero cells and downregulators of the expression of dengue viral E gene. Algae are an outstanding reservoir of novel compounds, which may help in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases. In this research, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were rapidly synthesized using a cheap extract of the alga Centroceras clavulatum. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In mosquitocidal assays, LC50 values of C. clavulatum extract against A. aegypti larvae and pupae were 269.361 ppm (larva I), 309.698 ppm (larva II), 348.325 ppm (larva III), 387.637 ppm (larva IV), and 446.262 ppm (pupa). C. clavulatum extract also exhibited moderate antioxidant activity, both in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging assays. LC50 values of C. clavulatum-synthesized AgNP were 21.460 ppm (larva I), 23.579 ppm (larva II), 25.912 ppm (larva III), 29.155 ppm (larva IV), and 33.877 ppm (pupa). Furthermore, C. clavulatum-synthesized AgNP inhibited dengue (serotype dengue virus type-2 (DEN-2)) viral replication in Vero cells. Notably, 50 ?g/ml of green-synthesized AgNP showed no cytotoxicity on Vero cells while reduced DEN-2 viral growth of more than 80 %; 12.5 ?g/ml inhibited viral growth of more than 50 %. Cellular internalization assays highlighted that untreated infected cells showed high intensity of fluorescence emission, which denotes high level of viral internalization. Conversely, AgNP-treated infected cells showed reduced levels of fluorescence, failing to show significant viral load. Overall, our study showed that alga-mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles may be considered to develop newer, safer, and cheap tools in the fight against the dengue virus, serotype DEN-2, and its vector A. aegypti, with little cytotoxicity on mammalian cells.

Palavras-Chave: Arbovirus; Biopesticide; Biosafety; Cytotoxicity; Dengue fever; Mosquito-borne disease; Nanotechnology

Imprenta: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 2, p. 651-662, 2016

Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue

Data de publicação: 2015