Cytomegalovirus-associated periodontitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome

Autor(es): Tabanella Giorgio,Nowzari Hessam

Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), an autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system, is characterized by rapidly ascending neural paralysis, hyporeflexia, and areflexia. The polyneuropathy of the GBS affects one to four humans per 100,000 of the population annually throughout the world (adults and children). The pathogenesis of GBS remains unclear. However, there are increasing indications that the disease is triggered by a preceding well-established febrile infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV). The present report describes active CMV within the periodontium of a 37-year-old patient affected by GBS. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) was performed to detect CMV, Epstein-Barr virus-1 (EBV-1), herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) virus, and enteroviruses (polio-, coxsackie-, echo-, and enteroviruses 68 and 71) from periodontal sites demonstrating advanced attachment loss. Healthy sites and sites with inflamed gingival tissue were not included in the study. Anaerobic bacterial culture determined the occurrence of potential major periodontal pathogens. Real-time RT-PCR and microbiologic analysis revealed the presence of a dual infection of CMV and specific bacterial plaque. CMV, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, and Campylobacter species were associated with periodontitis active sites, loss of attachment, and gingival bleeding. Furthermore, periodontal sites infected by active CMV had no visible radiographic crestal lamina dura. The periodontium may serve as a reservoir for CMV and a source of viral replication. However, further research is needed to test whether viral replication in the periodontium precedes the GBS symptoms.

Imprenta: Journal of Periodontology, v. 76, n. 12, p. 2306-2311, 2005

Identificador do objeto digital: 10.1902/jop.2005.76.12.2306

Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Real Time PCR ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - RT-PCR ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus

Data de publicação: 2005