Consultar: Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e de Computação - FEEC

Titulo Principal: Polices and programs I - United States

Chum, Helena
Palavras-chave [PT]:
Energia; Estados Unidos; Bionergia; Política energética
In the past 25 years, several policies and strategies have been used to bring bioenergy to just under 4% of the primary energy in the United States. In addition to direct R&D investments, the United States federal government provided a portfolio of approaches to directly increase the use of biomass for energy among several non-conventional sources of energy. The portfolio provided the private sector with a variety of financial incentives for the specific production of desired products. Examples include: 1. Payments either directly to consumers or producers or indirectly through energy excise taxes foregone; 2. reduced taxes through preferential tax rates, tax credits (R&D expenses offsetting taxes), tax deferrals, and income-reducing measures; 3. investment incentives such as accelerated capital depreciation; 4. a variety of loan programs; 5. a number of voluntary programs with industry; and 6. use of the federal government purchasing power to increase biomass and bioenergy use. In addition, at state level, several programs were implemented:
1. renewable portfolio standards with portions of the supply of electricity or fuels having to come from renewable sources. Many states have such portfolio.
2. Public Interest Research Funding for near term research, development and deployment activities funded by set asides in the production of electricity or fuels. The States of California and New York have very active programs. The most successful policies were those that provided "certainty of markets" and thus enabled industry to invest in these areas.
The outcomes of these and other activities were:
- Primary Energy - doubled in 20 years
- Electricity Production - tripled in 10 years
- Ethanol Fuels Production - increased a factor of 16 in 20 years
- Forest Products Energy Self-sufficiency increased by nearly 50% in 20 years.
- Forest Products/Pulp and Paper Energy Intensity decreased initially and resumed increase in the 1992-1998 period.
- Municipal solid waste management -- became safe and responsible. Recycling rates tripled in 30 years. Primary energy from MSW/landfills increased by a factor of 6 in 20 years.
- Significant emissions reductions, including carbon, and landfill use reduction were achieved.
- Significant economic development including rural.
Código: 1032
Informações adicionais:
Trabalho apresentado no evento Sustentabilidade na Geração e uso de Energia, UNICAMP, 18 a 20 de fevereiro de 2002.

Tipo de Informação: Apresentações

Dono: admin
Criado: 18-09-2002 13:40
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